ⓘ Laminin, gamma 3

                                     

ⓘ Laminin, gamma 3

Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins are composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma and they form a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1.

Biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the circuits have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the gamma chain isoforms of laminin, Gamma 3. Chain Gamma 3 closest to the Gamma 1 chain, and contains all the 6 domains expected of the gamma chain. It is a component of laminin 12. Services Gamma 3 as a whole is expressed in skin, heart, lungs and reproductive tract. In the skin is observed within the basement membrane of dermoepidermal connection at the points of penetration of the nerve. However, it was also discovered that the Gamma-3 is a prominent element of the apical surface of ciliated epithelial cells of the lungs, fallopian tubes, epididymis, VAS deferens and seminiferous tubules. The distribution of Gamma 3-containing laminins along ciliated epithelial surfaces suggests that the apical laminins play an important role in the morphogenesis and structural stability of the ciliated processes of these cells.

A recent study showed that LAMC3 plays an important role in the formation of convolution of the cerebral cortex. Especially LAMC3 is expressed in the embryonic period, which contributes to the formation of dentrites.